Serum lipid and lipoprotein profile of patients with glycogen storage disease types I, III and IX

T Geberhiwot, S Alger, P McKiernan, C Packard, M Caslake, E Elias, R Cramb
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 2007, 30 (3): 406
With current dietary therapy, life expectancy in glycogen storage disease (GSD) has improved considerably and more children reach adulthood. Notwithstanding intensive dietary therapy, moderate to severe hyperlipidaemia is still observed frequently. There is limited information about the type and extent of hyperlipidaemia. We studied the lipid profile in 20 patients, aged 8-54 years, of the three (types I, III and IX) most common forms of adult GSD. Hyperlipidaemia was shown to be type-specific, affecting predominantly patients with GSD type Ia, who showed marked combined hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. By contrast, a heterogeneous distribution of HDL was found in patients with GSD I and III. There was no significant difference in Apo Al and Apo B concentrations between groups. In addition, mass measurements of the fractions of VLDL1, VLDL2 and IDL were raised in all patients with GSD Ia by comparison with all other patients with GSD. Patients with GSD type Ia have lipid concentrations and individual mass measurements that are consistent with ranges found in patients who have a significant risk of atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence, however, suggest GSD type Ia patients do not have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) but the reason remains unknown. Intervention to reduce their lipid levels could therefore be on the basis of seeking to prevent the risk of pancreatitis rather than that of CVD.

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