JOURNAL ARTICLE

Diabetic retinopathy and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

Ning Cheung, Jie Jin Wang, Ronald Klein, David J Couper, A Richey Sharrett, Tien Y Wong
Diabetes Care 2007, 30 (7): 1742-6
17389333

OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the relation of diabetic retinopathy to incident coronary heart disease (CHD).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based, prospective cohort study consisting of 1,524 middle-aged individuals with type 2 diabetes without prevalent CHD and stroke at baseline was conducted. Diabetic retinopathy signs were graded from retinal photographs according to the Early Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale. Incident CHD events (myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, or coronary revascularization) were identified and validated following standardized protocols.

RESULTS: In our study, 214 (14.7%) participants had diabetic retinopathy. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 years, there were 209 (13.7%) incident CHD events. After controlling for age, sex, race, study center, fasting glucose, A1C, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, cigarette smoking, BMI, and lipid profile, the presence of diabetic retinopathy was associated with a twofold higher risk of incident CHD events (hazard rate ratio [HR] 2.07 [95% CI 1.38-3.11]) and a threefold higher risk of fatal CHD (3.35 [1.40-8.01]). Further adjustments for inflammatory markers, carotid artery intima-media thickness, or nephropathy had minimal impact on the association. The increased risk of CHD was significant in both men (1.89 [1.08-3.31]) and women (2.16 [1.16-4.02]) with diabetic retinopathy.

CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with type 2 diabetes, the presence of retinopathy signifies an increased CHD risk, independent of known risk factors. Our data support the role of microvascular disease in the pathogenesis of CHD in diabetes.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
17389333
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"