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Temporary epicardial pacing after cardiac surgery: a practical review. Part 2: Selection of epicardial pacing modes and troubleshooting.

Anaesthesia 2007 April
The first part of this two-part review discussed the indications for various types of epicardial pacing systems and an overview of the routine care of a pacemaker-dependent patient. Dual chamber temporary pulse generators now feature many of the refinements developed initially for use in permanent pacemakers. Few of these are utilised in the immediate postoperative period, often solely due to lack of familiarity with all but basic functions. The second part of the review deals with the selection of pacing modes. Troubleshooting real and apparent pacemaker malfunctions, including manual adjustment of parameters such as the AV interval, post atrial refractory period and upper rate limit, to avoid over- and undersensing, cross-talk and pacemaker-mediated tachycardia will also be addressed.

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