Toll or toll-free adjuvant path toward the optimal vaccine development

Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira
Journal of Clinical Immunology 2007, 27 (4): 363-71
Successful vaccines contain an adjuvant component that activates the innate immune system, thereby eliciting antigen-specific immune responses. Many adjuvants appear to be ligands for toll-like receptors (TLR), which are thus promising targets for the development of novel adjuvants to elicit vaccine immunogenicity. However, recent evidence suggests that some adjuvants activate the innate immune system in a TLR-independent manner possibly through other pattern recognition receptors and signaling machinery. In particular, newly identified intracellular retinoic-acid-inducible gene (RIG)-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, or even as yet unknown recognition machinery for the adjuvant may regulate TLR-independent vaccine immunogenicity. To develop optimal vaccines, it will be critical to understand how TLR-dependent and TLR-independent innate immune activation, by various adjuvants, control the consequent adaptive immune responses to vaccine.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"