Upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 confers the anti-invasive action of cisplatin on human cancer cells

R Ramer, K Eichele, B Hinz
Oncogene 2007 August 23, 26 (39): 5822-7
Cancer cell invasion is one of the crucial events in local spreading, growth and metastasis of tumors. The present study investigates the mechanism underlying the anti-invasive action of the chemotherapeutic cisplatin. In human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), cisplatin caused a time- and concentration-dependent suppression of cell invasion through Matrigel. Inhibition of invasion was accompanied by upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), whereas levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and TIMP-2 remained unchanged. Cisplatin's effects on TIMP-1 expression and invasion were associated with phosphorylations of p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases and were abrogated by specific inhibitors of both pathways. The impact of TIMP-1 in the anti-invasive action of cisplatin was proven by transfecting cells with small interfering RNA targeting TIMP-1, which completely reversed suppression of invasion by cisplatin. A functional relevance of TIMP-1 upregulation was substantiated by findings showing a concentration-dependent inhibition of Matrigel invasion by recombinant TIMP-1. The essential role of TIMP-1 in the anti-invasive action of cisplatin was confirmed using another human cervical carcinoma cell line (C33A) and human lung carcinoma cells (A549). Altogether, our data demonstrate a hitherto unknown mechanism by which cisplatin exerts its antimetastatic properties on highly invasive cancer cells.

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