Noninvasive ventilation

Timothy J Barreiro, David J Gemmel
Critical Care Clinics 2007, 23 (2): 201-22, ix
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) is the delivery of mechanical-assisted breathing without placement of an artificial airway such as an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. During the first half of 20th century, negative-pressure ventilation (iron lung) provided mechanical ventilatory assistance. By the 1960s, however, invasive (ie, by means of an endotracheal tube) positive-pressure ventilation superseded negative-pressure ventilation as the primarily mode of support for ICU patients because of its superior delivery of support and better airway protection. Over the past decade, the use of NPPV has been integrated into the treatment of many medical diseases, largely because the development of nasal ventilation. Nasal ventilation has the potential benefit of providing ventilatory assistance with greater convenience, comfort, safety, and less cost than invasive ventilation. NPPV is delivered by a tightly fitted mask or helmet that covers the nares, face, or head. NPPV is used in various clinical settings and is beneficial in many acute medical situations. This article explores the trends regarding the use of noninvasive ventilation. It also provides a current perspective on applications in patients with acute and chronic respiratory failure, neuromuscular disease, congestive heart failure, and sleep apnea. Additionally, it discusses the general guidelines for application, monitoring, and avoidance of complications for NPPV.

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