JOURNAL ARTICLE

Transgastric endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary drainage: results of a pilot study

E Bories, C Pesenti, F Caillol, C Lopes, M Giovannini
Endoscopy 2007, 39 (4): 287-91
17357952

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) access to the biliary tract is sometimes impossible and percutaneous access has the disadvantages of increased morbidity and patient discomfort. We present our first results with an alternative technique: endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided transgastric biliary drainage.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: 11 patients (7 men, mean age 64 years) were referred for failed ERCP and biliary obstruction (malignancy n = 8, benign conditions n = 3). The retrograde approach via the papilla had been impossible due to surgical anatomy, duodenal stenosis, and hilar stricture with occlusion of the left side. EUS-guided drainage was done with endoscopic and fluoroscopic monitoring. After puncture of the left biliary duct a guide wire was inserted into it followed by tract dilation using a cystostome. A plastic or a metallic stent was placed through this gastrobiliary fistula for bile drainage.

RESULTS: EUS-guided left hepaticogastrostomy was successfully performed in 10/11 cases, with one failure of guide wire insertion after puncture. Plastic and covered metal stents were inserted in seven and three patients, respectively. Complications in the plastic stent group included one early occlusion requiring stent replacement, and one transient ileus. In the metallic stent group there was one bilioma and one cholangitis, due to stent shortening. Clinically, the stent was efficacious in all 10 cases; during a mean follow-up of 213 days (range 3-610), two patients presented with stent occlusion and one with stent migration, with successful endoscopic treatment in all.

CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy is an efficient technique and could be a future alternative to percutaneous biliary drainage or palliative surgical drainage.

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