Effects of Ca2+ on the kinetics of phosphate release in skeletal muscle

J W Walker, Z Lu, R L Moss
Journal of Biological Chemistry 1992 February 5, 267 (4): 2459-66
The process of phosphate dissociation during the muscle cross-bridge cycle has been investigated by photoliberation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) within skinned fibers of rabbit psoas muscle. This permitted a test of the idea that Ca2+ controls muscle contraction by regulating the Pi release step of the cycle. Photoliberation of Pi from structurally distinct "caged" Pi precursors initiated a rapid tension decline of up to 12% of active tension, and this was followed by a slower tension decline. The apparent rate constant of the fast phase, kPi, depended on both [Pi] and [Ca2+], whereas the slow phase generally occurred at 2-4 s-1. At maximal Ca2+, kPi increased in a nonlinear manner from 43 +/- 2 s-1 to 118 +/- 7 s-1, as Pi was raised from 0.9 to 12 mM. This was analyzed in terms of a three-state kinetic model in which a force-generating transition is coupled to Pi dissociation from the cross-bridge. As Ca(2+)-activated tension was reduced from maximal (Pmax) to 0.1 Pmax, (i) kPi decreased by up to 2.5-fold, (ii) the relative amplitude of the rapid phase increased 2-fold, and (iii) the relative amplitude of the slow phase increased about 6-fold. Changes in the rapid phase are compatible with Ca2+ influencing an apparent equilibrium constant for the force-generating transition. By comparison, kPi was faster than the rate constant of tension redevelopment, ktr, and was influenced less by Ca2+. Ca2+ effects on the caged Pi transient cannot account for the large effects of Ca2+ on actomyosin ATPase rates or cross-bridge cycling kinetics but may be a manifestation of reciprocal interactions between the thin filament and force-generating cross-bridges, and may represent Ca2+ regulation of the distribution of cross-bridges between non-force-and force-generating states.

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