Dual in vitro perfusion of an isolated cotyledon as a model to study the implication of changes in the third trimester placenta on preeclampsia

S Di Santo, R Sager, A-C Andres, S Guller, H Schneider
Placenta 2007, 28: S23-32
In the current study perfusions of an isolated cotyledon of term placenta using standard medium were compared to medium containing xanthine plus xanthine oxidase (X+XO), which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). A time-dependant increase in the levels of different cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1ss, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) was observed between 1 and 7h with more than 90% of the total recovered from the maternal compartment with no significant difference between the 2 groups. For 8-iso-PGF2alpha 90% of the total was found in the fetal compartment and a significantly higher total release was seen in the X+XO group. Microparticles (MPs) isolated from the maternal circuit were identified by flow cytometry as trophoblastic sheddings, whereas MPs from the fetal circuit were predominantly derived from endothelial cells. More than 90% of the total of MPs was found in the maternal circuit. The absolute amount of the total as well as the maternal fraction were significantly higher in the X+XO group. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the perfused tissue revealed staining for IL-1beta of villous stroma cells, which became clearly more pronounced in experiments with X+XO. Western blot of tissue homogenate revealed 2 isoforms of IL-1beta at 17 and 31kD. In X+XO experiments there was a tendency for increased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the tissue. Western blot of MPs from the maternal circuit showed increased expression of antioxidant enzymes in the X+XO group and for IL-1beta only the 17kD band was detected. In vitro reperfusion of human placental tissue results in mild tissue injury suggestive of oxidative stress. In view of the increased generation of ROS in perfused tissue with further increase under the influence of X+XO, the overall manifestation of oxidative stress remained rather mild. Preservation of antioxidant capacity of human placental tissue could be a sign of integrity of structure and function being maintained in vitro by dual perfusion of an isolated cotyledon. The observed changes resemble findings seen in placentae from preeclampsia.

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