JOURNAL ARTICLE
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Evolution in techniques for endoscopic brow lift with deep temporal fixation only and lower blepharoplasty-transconjunctival fat repositioning.

As we become more confident with our surgical skills following our fellowship training, some of our approaches and techniques will be modified or changed. My primary evolutionary change involves procedures of the upper third of the face, primarily the brow lift and treatment of lower eyelid fat techniques. Traditional methods of forehead and brow rejuvenation, such as coronal, pretrichal, and direct brow lifts, have provided facial plastic surgeons with effective brow elevation for many years. In the past decade, the endoscopic brow lift has rapidly become accepted as part of the surgical armamentarium and is frequently the technique of choice. In general, the temporal dissection, temporal fixation, forehead subperiosteal or subgaleal dissection with release, and treatment to the brow depressor musculature have been standardized. Methods of bony fixation remain a controversial topic as there are numerous methods. We advocate deep temporal fixation only without bone fixation to achieve effective, long-term brow elevation. Traditionally, lower eyelid herniated fat is removed, which may cause a sunken or hollow lid appearance, especially in patients with a tear trough deformity (nasojugal groove). Lower eyelid transconjunctival fat repositioning, defined as the subperiosteal repositioning of the medial and central lower eyelid herniated orbital fat into the nasojugal fold, may prevent the surgical, hollow lower eyelid appearance while treating the herniated fat. Fat repositioning may be combined with an endoscopic subperiosteal midface-lift, transcutaneous skin pinch, and transconjunctival orbicularis oculi excision. This technique offers a powerful tool in the surgical armamentarium of the facial plastic surgeon.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app