Bradykinin potentiates cytokine-induced prostaglandin biosynthesis in osteoblasts by enhanced expression of cyclooxygenase 2, resulting in increased RANKL expression

Anna Bernhold Brechter, Ulf H Lerner
Arthritis and Rheumatism 2007, 56 (3): 910-23

OBJECTIVE: Bradykinin (BK) stimulates bone resorption in vitro and synergistically potentiates interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced bone resorption and prostaglandin (PG) formation, suggesting that kinins are important in inflammation-induced bone loss. The present study was undertaken to study 1) the role of the kinin B1 and B2 receptors in the synergistic interaction with IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), 2) the molecular mechanisms involved in synergistic enhancement of PG formation, and 3) the effects of kinins on cytokine-induced expression of RANKL, RANK, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) (the latter being crucial molecules in osteoclast differentiation).

METHODS: Formation of PGs, expression of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism, and expression of RANKL, RANK, and OPG were assessed in the human osteoblastic cell line MG-63 and in mouse calvarial bones. The role of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases was studied using pharmacologic inhibitors.

RESULTS: PGE(2) formation and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expression were induced by IL-1beta and potentiated by kinins with affinity for the B1 or B2 receptors, resulting in PGE(2)-dependent enhancement of RANKL. The enhancements of PGE(2) formation and COX-2 were markedly decreased by inhibition of p38 and JNK MAP kinases, whereas inhibition of NF-kappaB resulted in abolishment of the PGE(2) response with only slight inhibition of COX-2.

CONCLUSION: Kinin B1 and B2 receptors synergistically potentiate IL-1- and TNFalpha-induced PG biosynthesis in osteoblasts by a mechanism involving increased levels of COX-2, resulting in increased RANKL. The synergistic stimulation is dependent on NF-kappaB and MAP kinases. These mechanisms might help to explain the enhanced bone resorption associated with inflammatory disorders, including that in rheumatoid arthritis.

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