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Evidence-based treatment recommendations for uremic bleeding.

Uremic bleeding syndrome is a recognized consequence of renal failure and can result in clinically significant sequelae. Although the pathophysiology of the condition has yet to be fully elucidated, it is believed to be multifactorial. This article is a review of both the normal hemostatic and homeostatic mechanisms that operate within the body to prevent unnecessary bleeding, as well as an in-depth discussion of the dysfunctional components that contribute to the complications associated with uremic bleeding syndrome. As a result of the multifactorial nature of this syndrome, prevention and treatment options can include one or a combination of the following: dialysis, erythropoietin, cryoprecipitate, desmopressin, and conjugated estrogens. Here, these treatment options are compared with regard to their mechanism of action, and onset and duration of efficacy. An extensive review of the clinical trials that have evaluated each treatment is also presented. Lastly, we have created an evidence-based treatment algorithm to help guide clinicians through most clinical scenarios, and answered common questions related to the management of uremic bleeding.

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