JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

The effect of tramadol or clonidine added to intraperitoneal bupivacaine on postoperative pain in total abdominal hysterectomy

Dilek Memis, Alparslan Turan, Beyhan Karamanlioglu, Baris Tükenmez, Zafer Pamukçu
Journal of Opioid Management 2005, 1 (2): 77-82
17319251
Recent studies suggest that intraperitoneal application of local anesthetics is useful in abdominal surgery. Tramadol and clonidine have specific effects on peripheral nerves when used alone. We aimed to evaluate the effects of intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine and the combinations of bupivacaine plus tramadol and bupivacaine plus clonidine on postoperative pain in total abdominal hysterectomy. After standard anesthetic procedure during closure of the abdomen, Group 1 (n = 20) was given 20 mL bupivacaine 0.5 percent, Group 2 (n = 20) was given 20 mL bupivacaine 0.5 percent plus 100 mg tramadol, and Group 3 (n = 20) was given 20 mL bupivacaine 0.5 percent plus 1 microg per kg clonidine, all into the peritoneal cavity. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS) at 30 minutes, and two, four, six, 12, and 24 hours after extubation. While patients were supine and seated, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) values were noted. When VAS scores were 4 to 7, 0.5 mg per kg of meperidine was given intramuscularly (IM); above 7, 1 mg per kg of meperidine was given IM; and when VAS scores were 2 to 4, 500 mg acetaminophen was given orally. For evaluating quality of analgesia, rescue analgesic dose, analgesia time, and side effects were noted. The groups were similar in respect to SpO2; however, when Group 1 was compared to Groups 2 and 3 at 30 minutes, and two, four, and six hours, MAP and HR measurements were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05). VAS values in sitting and supine positions at 30 minutes and two hours were significantly lower in Group 2 (p < 0.05) when compared to Group 1. VAS values for Group 3 at 30 minutes, and two and four hours in the supine position, and at 30 minutes and two hours in the sitting position, were found to be significantly lower than those in Group 1 (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between Groups 2 and 3. The mean dosage of meperidine used was 76.7+/-10.5 mg in Group 1, 63.9+/-8.4 mg in Group 2, and 70 +/-5.2 mg in Group 3. When Group 1 was compared to Group 2, there were significant differences found (p < 0.05). First analgesic requirement time was found to be 30 (range, 30 to 30) minutes in Group 1, 120 (range, 30 to 240) minutes in Group 2, and 110 (range, 30 to 240) minutes in Group 3. There were significant differences found when Groups 2 and 3 were compared to Group 1 (p < 0.05). We concluded that the combinations of bupivacaine plus tramadol and bupivacaine plus clonidine administered intraperitoneally in total abdominal hysterectomy operations provide more effective analgesia than bupivacaine alone during the early postoperative period.

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