Radical prostatectomy for clinical stage T3a disease

Stephen J Freedland, Alan W Partin, Elizabeth B Humphreys, Leslie A Mangold, Patrick C Walsh
Cancer 2007 April 1, 109 (7): 1273-8

BACKGROUND: Men with clinical stage T3a disease are at high risk and are often encouraged to undergo radiation therapy with concomitant hormonal therapy. The long-term outcomes among men treated with radical prostatectomy for clinical stage T3a disease were examined.

METHODS: Among 3397 men treated by radical prostatectomy by 1 surgeon between 1987 and 2003, 62 (1.8%) men were identified who had clinical stage T3a disease. Among the 56 men not treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies before prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence, the long-term outcomes of PSA-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and prostate cancer specific survival were examined. Median and mean follow-up after surgery were 10.3 and 13 years, respectively (range, 1-17).

RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of men in this group had pathological T3 disease. PSA-free survival at 15 years after surgery was 49%. Metastasis-free survival and cause-specific survival at 15 years after surgery were 73% and 84%, respectively. Among men with a PSA recurrence, 46% received secondary therapy before metastasis. The only preoperative or pathological feature that predicted risk of prostate cancer death was lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-80.02, P = .044). Among the 28 men with a PSA recurrence, PSA doubling time (PSADT) data were available for 23, of which 11 (48%) has a PSADT >/=9 months. No patient with a PSADT >/=9 months died of prostate cancer. A PSADT <9 months was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (log-rank, P = .004).

CONCLUSIONS: In a select cohort of men with clinical stage T3a disease, radical prostatectomy alone provides long-term cancer control in about half of the men and results in a prostate cancer-specific survival of 84%. Among men with a PSA recurrence, PSADT at the time of recurrence is a useful determinant of risk of prostate cancer death.

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