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Safety issues of hysteroscopic surgery.

The term hysteroscopy is used to determine the procedure during which an endoscopic view of the endometrial cavity is achieved with the help of a type of endoscopic device called "the hysteroscope." Hysteroscopy is used to assist the diagnosis for a series of female pathology. Apart from its diagnostic value, hysteroscopy can also be used for operative procedures including ablation and resection. Both diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy have been used for a number of years and various studies have been published to describe their success and complication rates throughout this period. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is relatively safe, whereas complications occur more frequently when operative hysteroscopy is used. These complications include uterine perforation, hemorrhage, fluid overload, gas embolization, and hyponatremia. The rate in the appearance of these complications is dependent on the type of the hysteroscopic procedure, the distending medium, and the experience of the hysteroscopist. To avoid any problems concerning the application of hysteroscopic procedures, it is important to take the necessary precautions both preoperatively and intraoperatively. For example, the preoperative use of thinning agents of the endometrium and the reduction of the operating time, or the avoidance of cutting too deeply into the myometrium, are some of the parameters to be considered when hysteroscopy is in argument.

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