[The role of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of hemoptysis]

V Koblízek, V Chovanec, A Krajina, F Salajka, M Lojik, J Raupach, J Skricková, J Chlumský
Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství 2006, 52 (12): 1162-71

BACKGROUND: Moderate and severe hemoptysis is a potential life-threatening condition which requires immediate medical examination and intervention.

AIM: Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of bronchial artery embolization in the management of hemoptysis (over 50 ml per 24 hours) in the university hospital (from 1998 to 2005).

METHODS: A retrospective case study. Forty seven consecutive patients with hemoptysis over 50 ml per 24 hours were reviewed and data collected from medical documentation (medical history, chest X-ray, bronchoscopy, thorax spiral CT, pulmonary and bronchial angiography).

RESULTS: Forty seven patients, 34 men and 13 women aged between 19-87 years, mean age of 57.1 years, were included in this study. All patients had clinically important hemoptysis (more than 50 ml blood in 24 hours), 23 patients 50-200 ml, 14 patients 200-500 ml, 10 patients over 500 ml. Twenty eight patients had reccurent hemoptysis and nineteen patients had the first stage of hemoptysis. Within the study group we recorded the following clinical causes of hemoptysis: 12 COPD with bronchiectasis, 11 pulmonary malignancy, 11 idiopatic hemoptysis, 5 arterioarterial shunts, 3 pneumonia, 2 aspergillomas, 1 posttuberculous scars, 1 pulmonary trauma, 1 pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. All 47 patients underwent angiography. Thirty seven bronchial artery embolizations (BAE) were performed on the side with greater bronchoscopy and CT abnormality. Polyvinyl-alcohol (sponge particles 45-350 pm) or acrylate glue were used as embolizing agents. We did not observe any complication during this procedures (BAE). Immediate success i.e. cessation of hemoptysis was achieved in 36 patients (97%). Follow-up lasted 4-63 months (33 patients). BAE resulted in long-term success i.e. no recurrent hemoptysis for 28 patients (85%).

CONCLUSION: Transcatheter bronchial artery embolization is an effective and safe procedure for patients suffering from clinically important hemoptysis. Short-term control of hemoptysis can be achieved in 97% and long-term control in 85% of cases. Bronchial artery embolization is a treatment which can reduce the need for acute thoracic surgery.

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