JOURNAL ARTICLE
META-ANALYSIS
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Intracranial hemorrhage after carotid angioplasty: a pooled analysis.

PURPOSE: To use a pooled analysis of the literature to find the incidence of and characteristics common to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS).

METHODS: A search of the English-language literature (1996-2005) was performed in PubMed to find cases of CAS-associated ICH. Information was derived from the identified case studies in 5 categories and 19 aspects: (1) incidence of CAS-associated ICH; (2) demographic data (sex, age, symptom presentation, and presence of preexisting hypertension); (3) imaging data (side of lesion, degree of maximal stenosis, lesion location, status of the contralateral carotid artery, collateral circulation, and preprocedural imaging features); 4) procedure-related characteristics (antithrombotic medication, use of cerebral protection devices, residual stenosis, symptoms, interval from the procedure to ICH, type of ICH, and blood pressure changes); and (5) clinical outcome.

RESULTS: Fifty-four cases of CAS-associated ICH were reviewed: 51 cases from 36 published articles and our own 3 cases. The incidence of CAS-associated ICH was 0.63% (95% CI 0.38% to 0.97%) in studies consisting of >100 cases, which was significantly lower (p<0.0001) than that of case series consisting of <100 cases (2.69%, 95% CI 1.75% to 3.94%). Distinctive features included symptomatic lesions, severe stenosis (> or =90%), maximal stenosis in the internal carotid artery (ICA) distal to the bifurcation, and preexisting cerebral infarction.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAS-associated ICH was significantly lower in series consisting of >100 cases. More caution should be directed toward patients with symptomatic lesions, severe stenosis, maximal ICA stenosis distal to the carotid bifurcation, and preexisting cerebral infarction.

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