Maternal serum free-beta-chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and fetal nuchal translucency thickness at 10-13(+6) weeks in relation to co-variables in pregnant Saudi women

Mohammed-Salleh M Ardawi, Hasan A Nasrat, Abdulrahim A Rouzi, Mohammed H Qari, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani, Adel M Abuzenadah
Prenatal Diagnosis 2007, 27 (4): 303-11

OBJECTIVE: To establish normative values and distribution parameters of first-trimester screening markers, namely, fetal nuchal translucency (NT), maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), at 10 to 13(+6) weeks of gestation in Saudi women and to evaluate the effect of co-variables including maternal body weight, gravidity, parity, fetal gender, twin pregnancy, smoking and ethnicity on these markers.

METHODS: A cohort of Saudi women (first cohort n = 1616) with singleton pregnancies prospectively participated in the present study, and fetal NT together with maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were determined at 10 to 13(+6) weeks of gestation. The distribution of gestational age-independent multiples of the median (MoM) of the parameters was defined and normative values were established, and correction for maternal body weight was made accordingly. The influence of various co-variables was examined using the data collected from the first and the second (n = 1849) cohorts of women and 62 twin pregnancies, and compared with other studies.

RESULTS: All markers exhibited log-normally distributed MoMs. Gestational age-independent normative values were established. Maternal body weight was corrected, particularly for maternal free beta-hCG and PAPP-A using standard methods. Fetal NT showed a negative relationship with increasing gravidity (r = -0.296) or parity (r = -0.311), whereas both free beta-hCG and PAPP-A exhibited a significant positive relationship. There was a significant increase in the MoM of free beta-hCG in female fetuses. Smoking decreased MoM values of free beta-hCG (by 14.6%; P < 0.01) and PAPP-A (by 18.8%; P < 0.001). Twin pregnancy showed significant increases in MoM values of free beta-hCG (by 1.87-fold) and PAPP-A (by 2.24-fold), with no significant changes in fetal NT MoM values. Fetal NT MoM values were lower in Africans and Asians but higher in Orientals, as compared to Saudi women (P < 0.05; in each case). MoM values (body weight-corrected) of free beta-hCG were 25.2% higher in Africans and 19.4% higher in Orientals but 6.8% lower in other Arabian and Asian (by 5.8%) women as compared to Saudi women (P < 0.05; in each case).

CONCLUSIONS: The normative values and distribution parameters for fetal NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were established in Saudi singleton pregnancies, the maternal body weight together with smoking, twin pregnancy and ethnicity being important first-trimester screening co-variables. Gravidity, parity and fetal gender are also considered to influence one or more of the first-trimester markers examined.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"