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Clinico-etiological and EEG profile of neonatal seizures

Ajay Kumar, Ashish Gupta, Bibek Talukdar
Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2007, 74 (1): 33-7

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, etiological and EEG profile of neonatal seizures.

METHODS: In all the neonates enrolled in the study baseline information recorded was sex, gestational age, weight, ponderal index etc. Clinical profile of seizure episode included age at onset of seizure, type and duration of seizure, associated autonomic changes, medication given, response time to medication and possible cause. Relevant maternal history including antenatal and peripartum history was recorded. Relevant history and examination of newborn were noted. Essential investigations done in all subjects included blood glucose, serum calcium, serum sodium and arterial pH. USG cranium and EEG were done at earliest in all the subjects wherever feasible. Additional investigations were done as guided by history, physical examination and essential investigations.

RESULTS: Ninety babies with clinical seizures were enrolled into the study over one year period with an overall incidence of 1.17% (0.69% in term babies and 6.14% in preterm babies). Abnormal EEG's were found in one third cases out of 60 EEG's done in 90 babies. 26.7% of babies with perinatal asphyxia had abnormal EEG's (8/30). While 60% of babies with HIE II had abnormal discharges, background activity was suppressed in 66.66% EEG's in babies with HIE III.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of neonatal seizures was 11.7/1000 live births, majority being preterm very low birth weight babies before 5 days of life. Perinatal asphyxia was responsible in 44.44% babies followed by metabolic abnormalities (23.33%). EEG abnormalities were present in 33.34% babies.

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