Comparative analysis of amphotericin B lipid complex and liposomal amphotericin B kinetics of lung accumulation and fungal clearance in a murine model of acute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

Russell E Lewis, Guangling Liao, Jinggou Hou, Georgios Chamilos, Randall A Prince, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2007, 51 (4): 1253-8
The reformulation of amphotericin B (AMB) into a lipid complex (AMB lipid complex [ABLC]) or liposomal carrier (liposomal AMB [L-AMB]) changes the rate and extent of drug distribution to the lung. The importance of pharmacokinetic differences among the various lipid AMB formulations in the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains unknown. We compared the kinetics of AMB lung accumulation and fungal clearance of ABLC- and L-AMB-treated mice with acute IPA. BALB/c mice were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and cortisone before intranasal inoculation with 1.5x10(6) Aspergillus fumigatus 293 conidia. ABLC or L-AMB was administered in daily intravenous doses (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg of body weight), starting 12 h after infection and continuing until day 5. At predetermined times (0, 24, 72, and 120 h), mice were euthanized, and lungs were harvested for determinations of lung fungal burdens (quantitative PCR) and total AMB lung tissue concentrations. Both ABLC and L-AMB were effective at reducing lung fungal burdens at doses of >or=5 mg/kg/day. Clearance of A. fumigatus during the first 24 h was associated with AMB tissue concentrations of >4 microg/g. At 5 mg/kg/day, ABLC produced a more rapid fungal clearance than did L-AMB, but at the end of therapy, fungal burden reductions were similar for both formulations and were not improved with higher dosages. These data suggest that ABLC delivers active AMB to the lung more rapidly than does L-AMB, resulting in faster Aspergillus clearance in an experimental model of IPA. However, pharmacodynamic differences between the two formulations were less apparent when mice were dosed at 10 mg/kg/day.

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