Effect of PPAR-gamma agonist on adiponectin levels in the metabolic syndrome: lessons from the high fructose fed rat model

Yehonatan Sharabi, Mor Oron-Herman, Yehuda Kamari, Irit Avni, Edna Peleg, Zehava Shabtay, Ehud Grossman, Arie Shamiss
American Journal of Hypertension 2007, 20 (2): 206-10

BACKGROUND: The health hazard of the metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing, yet there is no effective pharmacologic treatment to this entity as a whole. Recently, hypoadiponectinemia was found to play an important role in the development of MS. We studied the effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone on adiponectin and the metabolic profile in the fructose-induced hypertensive, hyperinsulinemic, hypertriglyceridemic rat model.

METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Ten were fed standard rat chow for 5 weeks, 10, a fructose-enriched diet for 5 weeks, and 10, a fructose-enriched diet for 5 weeks, with rosiglitazone 10 mg/kg/d added during the last 2 weeks. Blood pressure (BP), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma insulin, triglycerides, and adiponectin were recorded, as well as mRNA levels of the adiponectin gene in visceral adipose tissue.

RESULTS: Fructose-fed rats developed MS as manifested by the increase in systolic BP (from 139 +/- 3 to 158 +/- 4 mm Hg, P < .05), insulin (from 26 +/- 1.6 to 40 +/- 2.5 muU/mL, P < .05), triglycerides (from 91 +/- 9 to 304 +/- 24 mg/dL, P < .05), and impaired OGTT (area under the curve from 13,894 +/- 246 to 17,725 +/- 700 mg/dL/min). Treatment with rosiglitazone reversed these effects and reduced BP to 133 +/- 7 mm Hg, insulin levels to 30 +/- 2.8 muU/mL, triglycerides to 116 +/- 9 mg/dL, and the OGTT to 15,415 +/- 372 mg/dL/min (P < .05 for all variables). In addition, rosiglitazone increased plasma levels of adiponectin fourfold from 4.3 +/- 0.1 to 18.4 +/- 0.6 mug/mL (P < .05). This increase was coupled with 3.8-fold increase in adiponectin mRNA in visceral adipose tissue.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows for the first time that in an animal model of MS, the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, improves the metabolic profile and increases plasma levels of adiponectin and its gene expression. It is possible therefore that rosiglitazone exerts its beneficial effects by increasing the levels of adiponectin.

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