Bone health in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disease

Anca Gal-Moscovici, Stuart M Sprague
Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2007, 14 (1): 27-36
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is accompanied by disturbances in calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) homeostasis that play an important role in the pathophysiology of renal bone disease. The increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed among patients with CKD has recently been recognized to be associated with these disturbances in mineral metabolism. Thus, disturbances in mineral metabolism observed in renal failure results in a multisystem disorder, making the development of a standardized definition of these disorders a top priority. Therefore, the Board of Directors of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes proposed to define the broader category of mineral disorders associated with CKD as CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This newly proposed definition will include the disorders of mineral metabolism, bone histology (renal osteodystrophy), and the extraskeletal manifestations such as vascular calcification. This new definition and stratification of disease should result in improvement not only in the clinical management of patients but also will facilitate the interpretation and translation of clinical research. Renal osteodystrophy is now considered as 1 component of this disorder and will be defined as a morphologic alteration only, based on unification of the histomorphometric definitions that will include parameters of turnover, mineralization, and volume. An internationally accepted classification system will enable the consensus for bone biopsy evaluation as well as for the role of biomarkers. This article will focus on the newly proposed definitions of bone disease as part of CKD-MBD, based on the complex pathophysiologic process underlying bone disease in CKD stages 2 to 5.

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