JOURNAL ARTICLE

The A-SACT (Achievement in Singapore of Cholesterol Targets) study in patients with coronary heart disease

Kheng-Thye Ho, Khong-Whee Chin, Kheng-Siang Ng, Evo Alemao, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Don Yin
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions 2006, 6 (6): 383-91
17192128

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide, with hypercholesterolemia being a major risk factor. Evidence-based consensus guidelines have recommended consideration of increasingly stringent cholesterol-lowering goals, yet most patients do not meet these targets. Coronary heart disease (CHD) event and mortality rates and mean serum cholesterol levels have declined in Singapore in recent years; however, certain groups remain at elevated risk.

OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) proportions of patients with CHD in Singapore who achieved goals for serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C); and (ii) factors influencing goal attainment.

METHODS: A historical cohort study was conducted using records from the Singapore Cardiac Databank, a national registry of CHD patients. Serum LDL-C goal attainment was assessed in 5174 survivors of acute myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization (i.e. coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary interventions), of whom 3811 (73.7%) were at very high risk.

RESULTS: At baseline, the mean patient age was 60.3 years, mean serum value of total cholesterol was 228 mg/dL, and mean LDL-C was 163 mg/dL. Of all CHD patients, approximately 70% did not achieve a serum LDL-C target of <100 mg/dL. Most patients receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) regimens were treated initially with low- to medium-equipotency regimens and were never titrated to stronger regimens. The vast majority (approximately 94%) of patients at very high risk did not achieve the stringent serum LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL. Patients receiving higher potency statins were significantly more likely to achieve LDL-C goals, whereas those with higher baseline LDL-C levels or Malaysian ethnicity were less likely to achieve LDL-C goals.

CONCLUSIONS: Most CHD patients in the large group of Singapore residents with CHD in the present study did not achieve recommended LDL-C targets. A more effective disease-management approach, including patient education concerning lifestyle modification (e.g. diet, physical activity), efforts to enhance medication adherence, and more effective, well tolerated therapies such as high-equipotency or high-dose statins and statin combination regimens, may be needed to improve achievement of consensus cholesterol targets. This is the first study of cholesterol goal attainment in a large group of Southeast Asians and serves as a baseline for future evaluations in Asian populations.

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