Complications, effects on dialysis dose, and survival of tunneled femoral dialysis catheters in acute renal failure

Kada Klouche, Laurent Amigues, Sebastien Deleuze, Jean-Jacques Beraud, Bernard Canaud
American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2007, 49 (1): 99-108

BACKGROUND: Availability of a functional vascular access is a mandatory prerequisite for extracorporeal renal replacement therapy in patients with acute renal failure. The femoral site of insertion commonly is chosen because it is an easy and convenient access. However, an array of complications may substantially alter the quality of treatment, and it appears that catheter-related morbidity and dysfunction are more frequent with the femoral than internal jugular site. This study is designed to evaluate the potential benefits of using soft silicone tunneled catheters ((ST)Caths) at the femoral site.

METHODS: Thirty patients with acute renal failure treated by intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) and/or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) were assigned to either twin (ST)Caths or twin polyurethane nontunneled femoral catheters. Time necessary for catheter insertion, catheter-related complications, and catheter lifespan were monitored. Catheter performance during IHD and the effect of catheter type on dialysis dose were evaluated.

RESULTS: The time necessary for (ST)Cath insertion was significantly longer. The incidence of vein thrombosis and catheter-related infection was lower, and the ratio of venous return pressure to catheter blood flow was better with an (ST)Cath. Recirculation rates were similar for both types of catheters. Whether treated by using IHD or CVVHDF, patients with an (ST)Cath benefited from a greater delivered dialysis dose. Multivariate analysis confirmed that (ST)Cath use was a determinant factor to optimize dialysis dose delivery. (ST)Cath patency was significantly longer.

CONCLUSION: In patients with acute renal failure, use of an (ST)Cath minimizes catheter-related morbidity and improves dialysis efficiency compared with conventional femoral catheters.

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