Diphenyleneiodonium and dimethylsulfoxide for treatment of reperfusion injury in cerebral ischemia of the rat

Simon Nagel, Just Genius, Sabine Heiland, Solveig Horstmann, Humphrey Gardner, Simone Wagner
Brain Research 2007 February 9, 1132 (1): 210-7
Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) is an inhibitor of the free radical producing NAD(P)H-oxidase. We tested whether DPI shows neuroprotective properties after focal cerebral ischemia and we used dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), a nonspecific free radical scavenger, as a solvent. In male Wistar rats middle cerebral artery occlusion (1.5 h) and subsequent reperfusion (48 h) (MCAO/R) was induced with the filament model. Immediately after reperfusion the animals received either 0.25 ml normal saline, DMSO, or a combination of DMSO and DPI; each group consisted of 10 animals. MRI was performed at different times after reperfusion. Gelatine zymography of brain tissue for MMP-2 and MMP-9 was performed. The infarct sizes and BBB damage showed a significant difference between controls and the DPI/DMSO group for almost all points in time in all sequences. The activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was significantly reduced by DPI/DMSO but not by DMSO alone. DMSO treatment alone resulted in a protective effect with reduced lesion sizes measured by MRI at selected points of time, consistent with its known free radical scavenger effect. The combination of DMSO with DPI partly augmented this effect, presumably due to the additional inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by DPI. Moreover, the neurological outcome in both therapeutic groups was improved compared to controls with a significant difference between the therapeutic groups in favour of DPI and DMSO. The combination of DPI and DMSO reduced the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, attenuated the postischemic blood-brain barrier damage and improved neurological outcome. This was most likely due to reduced oxidative stress.

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