Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass versus laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty: results of a 2-year follow-up study

M Goergen, K Arapis, A Limgba, M Schiltz, V Lens, J S Azagra
Surgical Endoscopy 2007, 21 (4): 659-64

BACKGROUND: The world's epidemic of obesity is responsible for the development of bariatric surgery in recent decades. The number of gastrointestinal surgeries performed annually for severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) in the United States has increased from about 16,000 in the early 1990s to about 103,000 in 2003. The surgical techniques can be classified as restrictive, malabsorptive, or mixed procedures. This article presents the results for 2 years of bariatric surgery in the authors' minimally invasive center and analyzes the results of the most used surgical techniques with regard to eating habits.

METHODS: Between January 2002 and January 2004, the authors attempted operations for morbid obesity in 110 consecutive patients adequately selected by a multidisciplinary obesity unit. This represented 43% of all consultations for morbidly obese patients. The patients were classified as sweet eaters or non-sweet eaters. All sweet eaters underwent gastric bypass. The procedures included 70 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses, 39 Mason's vertical banded gastroplasties, and 1 combination of vertical gastroplasty with an antireflux procedure. Revision procedures were excluded.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 41.36 years (range, 23-67 years), and 72.3% were female. The mean preoperative body mass index was 44.78 kg/m2 (range, 34.75-70.16 kg/m2). The mean operating time was longer for gastric bypass than for the Mason procedure. Three patients required conversion to an open procedure (2.7%). The two operative techniques had the same efficacy in weight reduction. Early complications developed in 11 patients (10%), and late complications occurred in 9 patients (8.1%). The postoperative length of hospital stay averaged 4.4 days (range, 1-47 days; median, 4 days), and was longer in the gastric bypass group. The mortality rate was zero. Data were available 2 years after surgery for 101 of the 110 patients (91%). Most comorbid conditions resolved by 1 year after surgery regardless of the type of operation used.

CONCLUSION: With zero mortality and low morbidity, bariatric surgery performed for adequately selected patients is the most effective therapeutic intervention for weight loss and subsequent amelioration or resolution of comorbidities. The patient's eating habits before surgery play an important role in the choice of the operative technique used.

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