Multiresidue method for determination of 35 pesticides in virgin olive oil by using liquid-liquid extraction techniques coupled with solid-phase extraction clean up and gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection and electron capture detection

Elpiniki G Amvrazi, Triantafyllos A Albanis
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006 December 27, 54 (26): 9642-51
A method for the multiresidue determination of 35 pesticides (30 insecticides and five herbicides) in olive oil by gas chromatography (GC) is described. Three liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedures based on (i) partition of pesticides between acetonitrile (ACN) and oil solution in n-hexane, (ii) partition of pesticides between saturated ACN with n-hexane and oil solution in n-hexane saturated with ACN, and (iii) partition of pesticides between ACN and oil were tested for the optimization of the highest pesticide recoveries with the lowest oil residue in the final extracts. Experimental tests were preformed in order to study the efficiency of different clean up procedures with N-Alumina, Florisil, C18, and ENVI-Carb solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges for the compounds analyzed by GC-nitrogen phosphorus detection. A second step of clean up was also performed for the compounds analyzed by GC-electron capture detection (ECD), by using phenyl-bonded silica (Ph), diol-bonded silica (Diol), cyanopropyl-bonded silica (CN), and amino propyl-bonded silica (NH2) SPE cartridges. LLE of the oil solution in hexane with ACN followed by an ENVI-Carb SPE clean up of the extract gave the best results for all target compounds. The ACN extract was additionally cleaned through a Diol-SPE cartridge for the determination of pesticides analyzed mainly by GC-ECD. Pesticide recoveries form virgin olive oil spiked with 20, 100, and 500 microg/kg concentrations of pesticides ranged from 70.9 to 107.4%. The proposed method featured good sensitivity, pesticide quantification limits were low enough, and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranged from 2.4 to 12.0%. The proposed method was applied successfully for the residue determination of the selected pesticides in commercial olive oil samples.

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