Comparison of the hemodynamic and echocardiographic effects of sufentanil, fentanyl, isoflurane, and halothane for pediatric cardiovascular surgery

J A Glenski, R H Friesen, R S Hassanein, D B Henry
Journal of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia 1988, 2 (2): 147-55
Sufentanil, fentanyl, halothane, and isoflurane were compared as sole anesthetic agents in 48 infants and children aged 6 months to 9 years, undergoing repair of congenital heart defects. Patients were randomly assigned to receive sufentanil, 20 microg/kg, fentanyl, 100 microg/kg, isoflurane, 1.6%, or halothane, 0.9%, along with pancuronium, 0.08 mg/kg, for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. Cardiovascular function was measured by echocardiography prior to induction, postinduction, and postintubation. Systemic arterial pressure and heart rate were also recorded. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased following induction with each agent: sufentanil 9%, fentanyl 9%, isoflurane 4%, and halothane 8%. Following intubation LVEF increased in the sufentanil, fentanyl, and isoflurane groups, but LVEF remained 13% below baseline values in the halothane group. Five of the 12 patients in the halothane group had a LVEF less than 55%. Arterial pressure immediately prior to bypass was significantly less than baseline in each group; however, arterial pressure was higher in the narcotic groups during isolation and cannulation of the great vessels. It is concluded that halothane, 0.9%, used as an induction agent in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery causes a clinically significant decrease in LVEF. Based on the echocardiographic data, sufentanil, fentanyl, and isoflurane as used in the present study do not have a clinically significant effect on cardiac function and may offer an advantage to infants and children with marginal cardiovascular reserve.

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