Can we predict the development of ischemic colitis among patients with lower abdominal pain?

Chi Jun Park, Myoung Kuk Jang, Woon Geon Shin, Hyoung Su Kim, Hee Seon Kim, Ki Sung Lee, Ja Young Lee, Kyung Ho Kim, Joon Yong Park, Jin Heon Lee, Hak Yang Kim, Eun Sook Nam, Jae Young Yoo
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 2007, 50 (2): 232-8

PURPOSE: This study was performed to find clinical risk factors for developing ischemic colitis in patients experiencing lower abdominal discomfort with or without bloody diarrhea.

METHODS: A total of 467 patients who underwent sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy because of lower abdominal discomforts with or without blood in stool were consecutively enrolled; 147 patients were diagnosed endoscopically and histologically as having ischemic colitis. The control group was composed of the remaining 320 patients with nonspecific endoscopic/histologic findings. Clinical variables were compared between the ischemic colitis group and the control group.

RESULTS: After excluding 67 patients in the ischemic colitis group, we compared the remaining 80 patients to the control group, using various clinical parameters. According to the logistic regression analysis, six factors were significantly related to ischemic colitis: older than aged 60 years (adjusted odds ratio, 5.7; 95 percent confidence interval: 2.6-11.7), hemodialysis (5; 1.2-21.6), hypertension (4.9; 2.3-10.5), hypoalbuminemia (3.5; 1.8-6.7), diabetes mellitus (3.4; 1.3-8.8), and constipation-inducing medications (2.8; 1.1-7.1). Through our analysis, we were able to predict the development of ischemic colitis for the patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4+ risk factors: 8, 21, 55, 79, and 100 percent, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Old age, hemodialysis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypoalbuminemia, and constipation-inducing medications are clinically important risk factors for ischemic colitis in patients experiencing lower abdominal discomfort with or without bloody stool. By considering these factors, we were able to predict with high accuracy the development of ischemic colitis.

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