End-stage renal disease and its treatment in Latin America in the twenty-first century

Ana Cusumano, Guillermo Garcia-Garcia, Cristina Di Gioia, Osvaldo Hermida, Carlos Lavorato, Cesar Agost Carreño, Maria Placida Garron Torrico, Paulo Benigno Pena Batista, João Egídio Romão, Hugo Poblete Badal, Susana Elgueta Miranda, Rafael Gomez, Manuel Cerdas Calderon, Sergio Herra Sanchez, Miguel Almaguer Lopez, Julio Moscoso, Ricardo Leiva Merino, Jose Vicente Sánchez Polo, Alirio Lopez, Norman Jiron Romero, Ramiro Garcia, Blanca V Franco Acosta, Augusto Saavedra Lopez, Eduardo Santiago Delpin, Emilio Mena, Carlota González, Carmen Luisa Milanés, Sergio Acchiardo
Renal Failure 2006, 28 (8): 631-7
The Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension's Dialysis and Transplant Registry was chartered in 1991. It collects information on ESRD and its treatment in 20 countries of the region. The prevalence of patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) increased from 129 pmp in 1992 to 447 pmp in 2004; in 2004, 56% of the patients were on hemodialysis, 23% on peritoneal dialysis, and 21% had a functioning kidney graft. The highest rates of prevalence were reported in Puerto Rico (1027 pmp), Chile (686 pmp), and Uruguay (683 pmp). Hemodialysis was widely used, except in El Salvador, Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic, where peritoneal dialysis predominated. Incidence rate increased from 27.8 pmp to 147 pmp in the same period of observation; the lowest rate was reported in Guatemala (11.4 pmp) and the highest in Puerto Rico (337.4 pmp). Diabetes mellitus was the leading cause of renal failure in incident patients; the highest rates were reported in Puerto Rico (62.2%) and Mexico (60%). Forty-four percent of the incident population were older than 65 years. Access to renal replacement therapy was universal in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela, while was restricted in other countries. Main causes of death in dialysis were cardiovascular (44%) and infectious disease (26%). The rate of renal transplantation increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 14.5 in 2004; fifty-three percent of the organs came from cadavers. Overall, donation rate was 5.9 pmp. In conclusion, the prevalence and incidence rates have increased over the years, and diabetes mellitus has emerged as the leading cause of kidney disease in the region. Although the rate of kidney transplantation has increased, the number remains insufficient to match the growing demand. The implementation of renal health programs in the region is urgently needed.

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