Temporal and dietary fat content-dependent islet adaptation to high-fat feeding-induced glucose intolerance in mice

Maria Sörhede Winzell, Caroline Magnusson, Bo Ahrén
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2007, 56 (1): 122-8
The high fat-fed mouse is an experimental model for studies of islet dysfunction as a mechanism for glucose intolerance and for evaluation of therapeutic targets. This model is, however, dynamic with a temporal and dietary fat content-dependent impact on islet function and glucose tolerance, the details of which are unknown. This study therefore examined the time course of changes in the insulin response to intravenous glucose (1 g/kg) in relation to glucose tolerance in female mice after 1, 3, 8, or 16 weeks of feeding with diets containing 11% fat (normal diet [ND]), 30% fat (medium-fat diet [MFD]), or 58% fat (high-fat diet [HFD]; by energy). High-fat diet increased body weight and body fat content, whereas MFD did not. The insulin response (postglucose suprabasal mean 1- and 5-minute insulin) was impaired after 1 week on MFD (481+/- 33 pmol/L) or HFD (223 +/- 31 pmol/L) compared with ND (713 +/- 46 pmol/L, both P < .001). This was accompanied by impaired glucose elimination compared with ND (both P < .001). Over the 16-week study period, the insulin response adaptively increased in the groups fed with HFD and MFD, to be not significantly different from ND after 16 weeks. This compensation normalized glucose tolerance in MFD, whereas the glucose tolerance was still below normal in HFD. Insulin clearance, as judged by elimination of intravenous human insulin, was not altered in HFD, suggesting that the observed changes in insulin responses to glucose are due to changes in insulin secretion rather than to changes in insulin clearance. We conclude that time- and dietary fat-dependent dynamic adaptive islet compensation evolves after introducing HFD in mice and that MFD-fed mice is a novel nonobese model of glucose intolerance.

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