Transposition of the great arteries.
Many patients with ventriculoarterial discordance have survived to adulthood. Those with complete transposition of the great arteries have often had an atrial switch procedure (Mustard or Senning operation) performed, which leaves the morphological right ventricle (RV) supporting the systemic circulation. RV failure and tricuspid regurgitation are common. Some patients may ultimately require cardiac transplantation. Sinus node dysfunction is increasingly common with longer follow-up, and some patients need pacemaker implantation. Atrial arrhythmias are frequent, and atrial flutter may be a marker for sudden death. Patients with an arterial switch procedure are also surviving to adulthood. Long-term problems include coronary stenoses, distortion of the pulmonary arteries, dilatation of the neoaortic root, and aortic regurgitation. Patients with congenitally corrected transposition have both atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial discordance and therefore also have a morphological RV and delicate tricuspid valve in the systemic circulation. Associated defects, such as abnormalities of the tricuspid valve, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary stenosis, occur in the majority of patients. Heart block occurs with increasing age. Atrial arrhythmias occur frequently, and their occurrence should prompt a search for a hemodynamic problem. Progressive tricuspid regurgitation occurs with age and is associated with deterioration of RV function. Surgical treatment should be considered at the earliest sign of RV dilatation or dysfunction. All patients should be seen periodically in a center where expertise in the clinical evaluation, imaging, and hemodynamic assessment of adult congenital heart disease is available.
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