JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Crack across Canada: Comparing crack users and crack non-users in a Canadian multi-city cohort of illicit opioid users

Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm, Jayadeep Patra, Kate Kalousek, Emma Haydon, Mark Tyndall, Nady El-Guebaly
Addiction 2006, 101 (12): 1760-70
17156175

AIMS: To examine possible differences between crack users and crack non-users across Canada.

DESIGN: Cohort study of illicit opioid and other drug users in five cities across Canada.

SETTING: Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, Montreal and Quebec City, Canada.

PARTICIPANTS: Regular illicit opioid and other street drug users not in treatment at time of assessment.

MEASUREMENTS: Participants (n = 677) were assessed at baseline (2002) by way of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a psychiatric diagnostic instrument (Composite International Diagnostic Interview), and salivary antibody tests for infectious disease.

FINDINGS: Approximately half the sample had used crack in the past 30 days, although prevalence rates differed strongly between study sites. When examined by discriminant analysis, crack users in the study population were more likely to have: no permanent housing, have illegal and sex work income, indicate physical health problems and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, use walk-in clinics, use heroin and to have been arrested and in detention (in past year). They were less likely to report depressive symptoms, and use Dilaudid (hydromorphone) and alcohol.

CONCLUSION: These results illustrate crack users' pronounced social marginalization (as expressed by homelessness and high involvement in illegal activities) as well as extensive health problems compared to non-crack users in the Canadian context. The development of targeted interventions-addressing the dynamics of social marginalization-of this population is urgently needed.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
17156175
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"