JOURNAL ARTICLE

Protein kinase C beta enhances growth and expression of cyclin D1 in human breast cancer cells

Haiyang Li, I Bernard Weinstein
Cancer Research 2006 December 1, 66 (23): 11399-408
17145886
Although alterations in the expressions of protein kinase C (PKC) have been implicated in breast carcinogenesis, the roles of specific isoforms in this process remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the specific roles of PKCbeta1 and beta2 in growth control in human breast cancer cell lines. The PKCbeta-specific inhibitor LY379196 significantly inhibited growth of the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT474, but not the normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10F. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with LY379196 caused an increase in the fraction of cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. To explore the roles of PKCbeta1 and beta2, we used cDNA expression vectors that encode wild-type and constitutively activated or dominant negative mutants of these two proteins. When compared with vector controls, derivatives of MCF-7 cells that stably overexpress wild-type PKCbeta1 or PKCbeta2 displayed a slight increase in growth rate; derivatives that stably express the constitutively active mutants of PKCbeta1 or PKCbeta2 displayed a marked increase in growth rate; and derivatives that stably express a dominant negative mutant of PKCbeta1 or beta2 displayed inhibition of growth. The derivatives of MCF-7 cells that stably express the constitutively activated mutants of PKCbeta1 or beta2 were more resistant to growth inhibition by LY379196 than the vector control MCF-7 cells. Immunoblot analysis indicated that MCF-7 cells that stably overexpress wild-type or constitutively activated mutants of PKCbeta1 or beta2 had higher cellular levels of cyclin D1 than vector control cells, whereas cells that express a dominant negative mutant had decreased levels of cyclin D1. The derivatives that stably express the constitutively activated mutants of PKCbeta1 or beta2 also displayed increased cyclin D1 promoter activity in transient transfection luciferase reporter assays, and this induction of activity requires activator protein 1. Constitutively activated PKCbeta1 and beta2 also enhanced the transcription of c-fos in transient transfection luciferase reporter assays. Thus, PKCbeta1 and beta2 may play important positive roles in the growth of at least a subset of human breast cancers. Therefore, inhibitors of these isoforms may be useful in breast cancer chemoprevention or therapy.

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