COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Stent-graft versus open-surgical repair of the thoracic aorta: mid-term results

David H Stone, David C Brewster, Christopher J Kwolek, Glenn M Lamuraglia, Mark F Conrad, Thomas K Chung, Richard P Cambria
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2006, 44 (6): 1188-97
17145420

OBJECTIVE: Pivotal and comparative trial data are emerging for stent graft (SG) vs open repair of the thoracic aorta. We reviewed procedure-related perioperative morbidity, mortality, and mid-term outcomes in a contemporary series of patients treated with SG of the thoracic aorta. The data were compared with those of a patient cohort concurrently treated with open surgical repair confined to the descending aorta.

METHODS: A review of patients undergoing SG procedures and open surgery of the thoracic aorta from January 1, 1996, to November 30, 2005, was performed from a prospectively compiled database. Study end points included perioperative complications, late survival, freedom from reinterventions, and graft-related complications. Multivariate methods were used to assess variables potentially associated with study end points; late outcomes were compared with actuarial methods.

RESULTS: In 105 patients (mean age, 70 years; 66 male [62.9%]) SG repairs were done for 68 degenerative aneurysms (64.7%), 12 penetrating ulcers (11.4%), 15 pseudoaneurysms (14.3%), 9 traumatic tears (8.6%), and 1 acute dissection (0.9%). Mean follow-up was 22 months (range, 0 to 101 months). Eighty-nine (84.8%) SG patients were asymptomatic at presentation and underwent elective repair, whereas 16 (15.2%) presented with acute conditions and underwent urgent repair. Perioperative mortality was 7.6% (8/105), and actuarial survival at 48 months was 54% +/- 7%. The perioperative mortality rate among SG patients treated for degenerative pathology was 10.4% (8/77). Seven (6.7%) of 105 patients experienced spinal cord ischemic complications, including 2 patients with transient paraparesis that resolved by the time of discharge. Reinterventions were performed in 10.5% of patients (11/105), with freedom from reintervention approaching 81% by 48 months. Over the same interval, 93 patients were treated with open-surgical repair for descending thoracic aneurysm (anastomosis cephalad to the celiac axis). Perioperative mortality in the open cohort was 15.1% (14/93; P = .09 vs SG repair), and the 48-month actuarial survival was 64% +/- 6%. The incidence of spinal cord ischemic complications was 8.6% (8/93), including 4 patients with transient paraparesis (P = .44 vs SG repair). Nine patients (9.7%) required surgical reintervention during the follow-up period, with 48-month freedom from reintervention approaching 79% (P = .73 vs SG repair).

CONCLUSIONS: Operative mortality was halved with SG, with similar late survival for both cohorts. Reinterventions were required at a nearly identical rate for open repair and SG, and both groups experienced similar rates of spinal cord ischemic complications.

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