Asynchrony of left ventricular systolic performance after the first acute myocardial infarction in patients with narrow QRS complexes: Doppler tissue imaging study

Mohamed Fahmy Elnoamany, Hala Mahfouz Badran, Tarek Helmy Abo Elazm, Eslam Shawky Abdelaziz
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 2006, 19 (12): 1449-57

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) electromechanical delay results in asynchronized contraction. However, it is not known if the presence of cardiac diseases without QRS prolongation may result in interventricular or intraventricular asynchrony. Doppler tissue imaging is now established for detecting regional contractile abnormalities and asynchrony in the LV.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the degree of LV asynchrony after the first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with a narrow QRS complex using Doppler tissue imaging and correlate this with the site and extent of the infarction.

METHODS: Echocardiography with Doppler tissue imaging was performed within 1 week of AMI in 155 patients and compared with 50 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Regional myocardial velocities were assessed at the 4 mitral annular sites, and the corresponding systolic velocity (Sm), early diastolic velocity (Em), time to peak Sm (Ts), and time to peak Em (Te) were measured. To assess LV synchronicity, SDs of Ts (Ts-SD) and Te (Te-SD) of all the 4 mitral annular sites were computed. Location and size of infarct were confirmed by echocardiographic wall-motion score index.

RESULTS: QRS complex duration was normal in all patients. Wall-motion score index was significantly higher in patients with anterior than inferior AMI (2.02 +/- 0.34 vs 1.24 +/- 0.21, P < .001). Ts-SD was significantly higher in patient than control group, and in patients with anterior than inferior AMI (38.21 +/- 2.59 vs 21.06 +/- 0.52 milliseconds and 43.18 +/- 3.77 vs 33.24 +/- 1.4 milliseconds, respectively, P < .001 for each), whereas Te-SD did not differ significantly among these groups (20.35 +/- 1.77 vs 18.17 +/- 1.14 milliseconds and 21.6 +/- 1.35 vs 19.1 +/- 1.11 milliseconds, respectively, P > .05 for each). A strong positive correlation was detected between LV systolic asynchrony (Ts-SD) and wall-motion score index (r = .77), LV mass (r = .67), LV end-systolic dimension (r = .65), and LV end-diastolic dimension (r = .5). The correlation was negative with LV ejection fraction (r = -.70) and Sm (r = -.6); the correlation was weak with Em (r = -.33) (P < .001 for all). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, infarct size was found to be the most independent predictor for systolic asynchrony (odds ratio 3.59, 95% confidence interval [1.43-9.33], P < .001).

CONCLUSION: AMI has a significant impact on regional myocardial contractility and LV systolic (but not diastolic) synchronicity early in the course even in the absence of QRS widening or bundle branch block. The degree of LV systolic asynchrony is greater with anterior than inferior AMI and mainly determined by infarct size.

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