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Enhanced excitability of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons by satellite glial cytokine following peripheral inflammation

Mamoru Takeda, Takeshi Tanimoto, Jun Kadoi, Masanori Nasu, Masayuki Takahashi, Junichi Kitagawa, Shigeji Matsumoto
Pain 2007, 129 (1): 155-66
17127002
Peripheral nerve injury activates satellite cells to produce interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) which mediates inflammation and hyperalgesia. This study investigated the hypothesis that activation of satellite glial cells modulates the excitability of trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons via IL-1beta following inflammation. Inflammation was induced by injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the whisker pad area. The threshold for escape from mechanical stimulation applied to the whisker pad in inflamed rats was significantly lower than that in control. Two days post-CFA injection, the mean percentage of TRG neurons encircled by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-/IL-1beta-immunoreactive cells was significantly increased compared to controls. GFAP and IL-1beta immunoreactivities were coexpressed in the same cells. Fluorogold (FG) labeling identified the site of inflammation. The number of FG-labeled IL-receptor type I (IL-1RI) TRG neurons in inflamed rats was significantly greater than in controls. In FG-labeled small TRG neurons, the size of IL-1beta (1 nM) induced-depolarization in inflamed rats was larger than in controls. IL-1beta application significantly increased firing rates evoked by depolarizing pulses in the neurons of inflamed rats, compared to controls. The response to IL-1beta was abolished by treatment with the IL-1RI antagonist. These results suggest that activation of satellite glial cells modulates the excitability of small-diameter TRG neurons via IL-1beta following inflammation, and that the upregulation of IL-1RI in the soma may contribute to the mechanism underlying inflammatory hyperalgesia. Therefore IL-1beta blockers are potential therapeutic agents for prevention of trigeminal hyperalgesia.

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