Vascular endothelial growth factor blockade reduces intratumoral regulatory T cells and enhances the efficacy of a GM-CSF-secreting cancer immunotherapy

Betty Li, Alshad S Lalani, Thomas C Harding, Bo Luan, Kathryn Koprivnikar, Guang Huan Tu, Rodney Prell, Melinda J VanRoey, Andrew D Simmons, Karin Jooss
Clinical Cancer Research 2006 November 15, 12 (22): 6808-16

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor cell immunotherapy in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockage in preclinical models.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Survival and immune response were monitored in the B16 melanoma and the CT26 colon carcinoma models. VEGF blockade was achieved by using a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector expressing a soluble VEGF receptor consisting of selected domains of the VEGF receptors 1 and 2 (termed sVEGFR1/R2). Dendritic cell and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte activation status and numbers were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Regulatory T cells were quantified by their CD4+CD25hi and CD4+FoxP3+ phenotype.

RESULTS: The present study established that GM-CSF-secreting tumor cell immunotherapy with VEGF blockade significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Enhanced anti-tumor protection correlated with an increased number of activated CD4+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating T cells and a pronounced decrease in the number of suppressive regulatory T cells residing in the tumor. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF from tumors resulted in elevated numbers of regulatory T cells in the tumor, suggesting a novel mechanism of VEGF-mediated immune suppression at the tumor site.

CONCLUSION: GM-CSF-secreting cancer immunotherapy and VEGF blockade increases the i.t. ratio of effector to regulatory T cells to provide enhanced antitumor responses. This therapeutic combination may prove to be an effective strategy for the treatment of patients with cancer.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"