Lidocaine pretreatment for the prevention of propofol-induced transient motor disturbances in children during anesthesia induction: a randomized controlled trial in children undergoing invasive hematologic procedures

Federico Bilotta, Francesca Ferri, Sulpicio G Soriano, Roberto Favaro, Luciana Annino, Giovanni Rosa
Paediatric Anaesthesia 2006, 16 (12): 1232-7

BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of lidocaine pretreatment before propofol administration on the incidence of transient motor disturbances and on propofol requirements for anesthesia induction in infants and children undergoing repeated painful diagnostic and therapeutic hematological procedures.

METHODS: A series of 358 children subgrouped according to the presence of a peripheral-vein or central venous catheter were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous dose of 2% lidocaine (2.0 or an equivalent volume of saline, 1 min before propofol (1.5-3.5 injected for anesthesia induction.

RESULTS: The incidence of spontaneous movements was significantly lower in patients pretreated with lidocaine than in those receiving placebo (2.5% vs 29%; P < 0.001, by chi-square test), as was the propofol induction dose (1.6 +/- 0.2 vs 2.2 +/- 0.3; P < 0.001) and pain at the injection site in patients peripheral-vein catheter (12% vs. 54%; P < 0.001). Lidocaine administration also improved children's acceptance as reported by parents on the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress administered 2 h after the procedure (6.5 +/- 2.5 vs. 9.4 +/- 3.3; P < 0.001). Bouts of coughing developed significantly more frequently after lidocaine pretreatment than after placebo (62.5% vs. 17.5%; P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Because lidocaine pretreatment before the induction of propofol-based anesthesia decreases propofol-induced motor disturbances, lowers hypnotic requirements and reduces pain at the injection site, without inducing untoward events, thus improving children's and parental acceptance, it should become standard practice in infants and children undergoing repeated painful diagnostic and therapeutic hematological procedures.

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