Significance of additional high-dose cytarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide plus total body irradiation regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation

Y Inamoto, T Nishida, R Suzuki, K Miyamura, H Sao, H Iida, T Naoe, F Maruyama, N Hirabayashi, M Hamaguchi, T Iseki, M Kami, K Yano, H Takeyama, Y Morishita, Y Morishima, Y Kodera
Bone Marrow Transplantation 2007, 39 (1): 25-30
The combination of cyclophosphamide (CY) and total body irradiation (TBI) has been used as a standard conditioning regimen for allogeneic transplantation. Several studies showed an advantage of adding high-dose cytarabine (HDCA) to this regimen. To clarify the significance of additional HDCA, we conducted a retrospective multicenter study and compared the clinical results of these two regimens. From June 1985 to March 2003, 219 patients with hematological malignancies underwent allogeneic transplantation after conditioning with CY+TBI 12Gy (n=73) or CA+CY+TBI 12Gy (n=146). Engraftment, overall survival, transplant-related mortality (TRM), relapse rate and incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were compared according to risks and donors. Addition of HDCA had no impact on the relapse rate in all subgroups, and it was associated with lower TRM among standard-risk patients after related transplantation, and with higher TRM and worse survival among standard-risk patients after unrelated transplantation. The incidence of acute GVHD was not significantly different between the two regimens, and HDCA resulted in a higher incidence of chronic GVHD among standard-risk patients after related transplantation. In summary, addition of HDCA is not beneficial for high-risk patients, and is not recommended for standard-risk patients receiving unrelated transplantation.

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