Execution of macrophage apoptosis by PE_PGRS33 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by Toll-like receptor 2-dependent release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Sanchita Basu, Sushil Kumar Pathak, Anirban Banerjee, Shresh Pathak, Asima Bhattacharyya, Zhenhua Yang, Sarah Talarico, Manikuntala Kundu, Joyoti Basu
Journal of Biological Chemistry 2007 January 12, 282 (2): 1039-50
Combating tuberculosis requires a detailed understanding of how mycobacterial effectors modulate the host immune response. The role of the multigene PE family of proteins unique to mycobacteria in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis is still poorly understood, although certain PE_PGRS genes have been linked to virulence. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is essential for successfully combating tuberculosis. In this study we provide evidence that PE_PGRS33, a surface exposed protein, elicits TNF-alpha release from macrophages in a TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2)-dependent manner. ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) is activated downstream of TLR2. ASK1 activates the MAPKs p38 and JNK. PE_PGRS33-induced signaling leads to enhanced expression of TNF-alpha and TNF receptor I (TNFRI) genes. Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing PE_ PGRS33 elicits the same effects as purified PE_PGRS33. TNF-alpha release occurs even when internalization of the bacteria is blocked by cytochalasin D, suggesting that interaction of PE_ PGRS33 with TLR2 is sufficient to trigger the effects described. Release of TNF-alpha plays the determining role in triggering apoptosis in macrophages challenged with PE_PGRS33. The death receptor-dependent signals are amplified through classical caspase 8-dependent mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, leading to the activation of caspases 9 and 3. An important aspect of our findings is that deletions within the PGRS domain (simulating those occurring in clinical strains) attenuate the TNF-alpha-inducing ability of PE_PGRS33. These results provide the first evidence that variations in the polymorphic repeats of the PGRS domain modulate the innate immune response.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"