JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Dietary effects of universal-free school breakfast: findings from the evaluation of the school breakfast program pilot project

Mary Kay Crepinsek, Anita Singh, Lawrence S Bernstein, Joan E McLaughlin
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2006, 106 (11): 1796-803
17081831

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of offering universal-free school breakfast in elementary schools on students' dietary outcomes.

DESIGN: Experimental study with random assignment of 153 matched elementary schools in six school districts. Treatment schools offered universal-free school breakfast, and control schools continued to operate the traditional means-tested School Breakfast Program. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from sample students near the end of the first year.

SUBJECTS: About 30 students in second through sixth grades were randomly selected from each school (n=4,358).

INTERVENTION: Free school breakfasts were made available to all students in treatment schools, regardless of family income, for three consecutive school years (2000-2001 to 2002-2003).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Breakfast consumption and food and nutrient intake.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Hierarchical mixed-models and logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, minority status, and income eligibility for the regular school meal programs, were used to estimate effects.

RESULTS: Despite a significant increase in school breakfast participation among sample students in treatment schools (from 16% to 40%, P<0.01), the rate of breakfast skipping did not differ between groups (4% overall). Treatment school students were more likely to consume a nutritionally substantive breakfast (P<0.01), but dietary intakes over 24 hours were essentially the same.

CONCLUSIONS: Making universal-free school breakfast available in elementary schools did not change students' dietary outcomes after nearly 1 year. To improve children's diets overall, efforts should focus on ensuring all students have access to a healthful breakfast, at home or at school.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
17081831
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"