JOURNAL ARTICLE

Use of titanium mesh for staged localized alveolar ridge augmentation: clinical and histologic-histomorphometric evaluation

Periklis Proussaefs, Jaime Lozada
Journal of Oral Implantology 2006, 32 (5): 237-47
17069168
The use of titanium mesh for localized alveolar ridge augmentation was evaluated by clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and histologic-histomorphometric evaluation. Seventeen patients participated in this study. All patients required localized alveolar ridge augmentation before placement of dental implants. An equal mixture of autogenous bone graft and inorganic bovine mineral (Bio-Oss) was used as a bone graft material. Autogenous bone graft was harvested intraorally. Titanium mesh was submerged for 8.47 months (SD 2.83). Impressions were taken intraorally before bone grafting, 6 months after bone grafting, and 6 months after implant placement. Impressions were used to measure the volume of alveolar ridge augmentation and provide linear laboratory measurements regarding the results of bone augmentation. Bone quality (type II-IV) was recorded during implant surgery. Standardized linear tomographs were taken before bone grafting and before implant placement. A biopsy was harvested with a trephine bur from the grafted area during implant surgery for histologic-histomorphometric evaluation. In all cases the grafted area had adequate bone volume and consistency for placement of dental implants. Early mesh exposure (2 weeks) was observed in 2 patients, and late exposure (>3 months) was observed in 4 patients. Volumetric laboratory measurements indicated 0.86 cc (SD 0.69) alveolar augmentation 1 month after bone grafting, 0.73 cc (SD 0.60) 6 months after bone grafting, and 0.71 cc (SD 0.57) 6 months after implant placement. This indicated 15.11% resorption 6 months after bone grafting, and no further resorption occurred after implant placement. Linear laboratory measurements indicated vertical augmentation of 2.94 mm (SD 0.86) 1 month after bone grafting, 2.59 mm (SD 0.91) 6 months after bone grafting, and 2.65 mm (SD 1.14) 6 months after implant placement. The corresponding measurements for labial-buccal augmentation were 4.47 mm (SD 1.55), 3.88 mm (SD 1.43), and 3.82 mm (SD 1.47). Radiographic evaluation indicated 2.56 mm (SD 1.32) vertical augmentation and 3.75 mm (SD 1.33) labial-buccal augmentation. Histomorphometric evaluation indicated 36.47% (SD 10.05) new bone formation, 49.18% (SD 6.92) connective tissue, and 14.35% (SD 5.85) residual Bio-Oss particles; 44.65% (SD 22.58) of the Bio-Oss surface was in tight contact with newly formed bone. The use of titanium mesh for localized alveolar ridge augmentation with a mixture of autogenous intraorally harvested bone graft and Bio-Oss offered adequate bone volume for placement of dental implants. Intraorally harvested autogenous bone graft mixed with Bio-Oss under a titanium mesh offered 36.47% new bone formation, and 15.11% resorption occurred 6 months after bone grafting.

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