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Transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: The Milan criteria and beyond.

Liver Transplantation 2006 November
1. Liver transplantation offers excellent results for selected candidates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 2. Selection strategies have evolved but are mainly based on size and number of tumors, which are surrogates for vascular invasion. Newer techniques show promise for identifying patients at high risk for recurrence and selecting those with low risk, even though they may exceed currently established tumor size criteria. 3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of liver transplantation for HCC requires an intent-to-treat approach that must include an accounting of the dropout rate of patients while waiting. 4. Locoregional pretransplantation adjuvant treatments may have some role for downstaging and/or reducing the dropout rate before transplantation, but their posttransplantation effect on outcome remains undetermined. 5. Liver allocation for HCC candidates in the context of increasing HCC prevalence requires better and evidence-based prioritization policies.

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