Moxifloxacin enhances antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of etoposide but inhibits its proinflammatory effects in THP-1 and Jurkat cells

I Fabian, D Reuveni, A Levitov, D Halperin, E Priel, I Shalit
British Journal of Cancer 2006 October 23, 95 (8): 1038-46
Etoposide (VP-16) is a topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitor chemotherapeutic agent. Studies indicate that VP-16 enhances proinflammatory cytokines secretion from tumour cells, including IL-8, a chemokine associated with proangiogenic effects. Fluoroquinolones inhibit topo II activity in eukaryotic cells by a mechanism different from that of VP-16. The fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin (MXF) has pronounced anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. We studied the effects of MXF and VP-16 on purified human topo II activity and further analysed their combined activity on proliferation, apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. Moxifloxacin alone slightly inhibited the activity of human topo II; however, in combination with VP-16 it led to a 73% reduction in enzyme activity. VP-16 inhibited cell proliferation in a time and dose-dependent manner. The addition of moxifloxacin for 72 h to low-dose VP-16 doubled its cytotoxic effect in THP-1 and Jurkat cells (1.8- and 2.6-fold decrease in cell proliferation, respectively) (P<0.004). Moxifloxacin given alone did not induce apoptosis but enhanced VP-16-induced apoptosis in THP-1 and Jurkat cells (1.8- and two-fold increase in annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activity, respectively) (P<0.04). VP-16 induced the release of IL-8 in a time and dose-dependent manner from THP-1 cells. Moxifloxacin completely blocked the enhanced release of IL-8 induced by 0.5 and 1 microg ml(-1) VP-16, and decreased IL-8 release from cells incubated for 72 h with 3 microg ml(-1) VP-16 (P<0.001). VP-16 enhanced the release of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha from THP-1 cells, whereas the addition of MXF prevented the enhanced cytokine secretion (P<0.001). We conclude that MXF significantly enhances VP-16 cytotoxicity in tumour-derived cells while preventing VP-16-induced proinflammatory cytokine release. This unique combination may have clinical benefits and cytotoxic drug 'sparing effect' and should be further studied in vivo.

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