The effect of zoledronic acid incorporated in a poly(D,L-lactide) implant coating on osteoblasts in vitro

S Greiner, A Kadow-Romacker, M Lübberstedt, G Schmidmaier, B Wildemann
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A 2007 March 15, 80 (4): 769-75
Bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid (ZOL) are used in diseases associated with osteoclast-mediated bone loss. However, their antiresorptive activity is partly due to their effect on osteoblasts. Local application might increase the therapeutical fence and their local efficiency and reduce systemic side effects. Aim of the study was to investigate the effect of ZOL on human osteoblasts like cells in vitro with special focus on the synthesis of factors mediating osteoclast differentiation (RANKL, OPG). ZOL was incorporated in an implant coating based on poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) in different concentrations (10-150 microM). Control groups were treated with uncoated implants, PDLLA-coated implants, and ZOL pure substance in corresponding concentrations. After an experimental period of 144 h, primary human osteoblasts were stained with alamar blue and cell viability was measured. Procollagen I synthesis, osteoprotegerin (OPG) secretion, and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL) were analyzed. Results showed that cell viability was not affected when treated with doses equivalent up to 100 microM ZOL-coated implants (ZOL-CI). Procollagen I synthesis was highest when treated with 50 microM ZOL-CI. OPG increased significantly in the 10 microM ZOL-CI group, whereas sRANKL decreased significantly with different concentrations of ZOL-CI. Higher concentrations or exposure to the pure substance showed a decrease in cell viability, collagen I, OPG, and sRANKL synthesis. In conclusion, exposure to specific concentrations of ZOL-CI showed a beneficial effect on osteoblast differentiation and protein synthesis without influencing their proliferation. Changes in sRANKL and OPG production may contribute to the inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. This local antiresorptive effect might be clinically useful in osseous implant integration and fracture healing.

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