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Intermediate results of percutaneous endovascular therapy of femoropopliteal occlusive disease: a contemporary series.

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endovascular therapy is becoming a primary option for managing infrainguinal occlusive disease. This study examined the results of femoropopliteal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with intermediate (mean, 24 months) follow-up in a contemporary series of patients presenting with critical limb ischemia or claudication.

METHODS: Femoropopliteal PTA was performed on 238 consecutive limbs (208 patients) from January 2002 to July 2004. Study end points, including primary patency, assisted patency, and limb salvage (Society of Vascular Surgery reporting standards), were assessed by Kaplan-Meier life-table analysis, and factors predictive of hemodynamic or clinical failure, or both, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate methods.

RESULTS: Clinical and demographic features included a mean age, 72 years; male (62%); critical limb ischemia (46%); diabetes mellitus (49%); and renal insufficiency (creatinine >or= 1.5 mg/dL) (29%). Lesions were classified as TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) A (11%), B (43%), C (41%), and D (5%). PTA was confined to the femoropopliteal segment in 77 patients (33%), and 161 (67%) underwent concurrent interventions in other anatomic locations. Femoropopliteal interventions included angioplasty only in 183 (78%), and the remaining 53 (22%) received at least one stent. Technical success was achieved in 97% of patients, with no deaths and a major morbidity rate of 3%. The 36-month actuarial primary patency was 54.3%, and assisted patency was 92.6% (37 peripheral reinterventions), resulting in a limb preservation rate of 95.4% in all patients regardless of clinical presentation. Interval conversion to bypass surgery occurred in 19 patients (8%). Comparison between critical limb ischemia and claudication revealed a primary patency of 40.8% vs 64.8%, assisted patency of 93.8% vs 92.6%, and limb salvage of 89.7% vs 100%, respectively. Negative predictors of primary patency determined by multivariate analysis included history of congestive heart failure (P = .02) and TASC C/D (P = .02). However, further evaluation of TASC C/D vs A/B revealed an assisted patency of 89.7% vs 94.3% (P = .37) and limb salvage of 94.3% vs 96.4% (P = .58).

CONCLUSIONS: Femoropopliteal PTA can be performed with a low perioperative morbidity and mortality. Intermediate primary patency is directly related to TASC classification. Although secondary intervention is often necessary to maintain patency in TASC C/D lesions, these data suggest that it would be appropriate to use PTA as initial therapy for chronic femoropopliteal occlusive disease regardless of clinical classification at presentation or TASC category of lesion severity.

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