Laparoscopic adrenalectomy

Andrew A Gumbs, Michel Gagner
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2006, 20 (3): 483-99
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) was first described in the literature in 1992, and has become the preferred method for the removal of benign functioning and non-functioning tumors of the adrenal gland <12 cm. The objectives of the present study are to review the experience of LA gained since it was first done in 1992 and to critically evaluate its effectiveness for the surgical management of endocrine hypertension; specifically pheochromocytoma, aldosteronoma and Cushing's syndrome and disease, as opposed to open adrenalectomy. The benefits of minimally invasive techniques for the removal of the adrenal gland include decreased requirements for analgesics, improved patient satisfaction, shorter hospital stay and recovery time when compared to open surgery. LA can be performed safely for bilateral disease and may become the standard of care for malignant tumors. Current limitations are operator-dependent and not a factor of limitations of minimally invasive techniques. A thorough pre-operative work-up is key for differentiating the various cases of hypertension and adequate pre-operative treatment is paramount when indicated.

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