Preliminary results and evaluation of MammoSite balloon brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation for pure ductal carcinoma in situ: a phase II clinical study

Pamela R Benitez, Oscar Streeter, Frank Vicini, Vivek Mehta, Coral Quiet, Robert Kuske, Mary Katherine Hayes, Doug Arthur, Henry Kuerer, Gary Freedman, Martin Keisch, Thomas Dipetrillo, David Khan, Richard Hudes
American Journal of Surgery 2006, 192 (4): 427-33

BACKGROUND: This report presents the preliminary results and evaluation of the MammoSite balloon catheter (MammoSite Radiation Therapy System; Cytyc Corporation, Marlboro, MA) as the sole method of delivering partial breast irradiation to the lumpectomy bed with breast-conserving surgery in patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

METHODS: Twelve institutions are participating in this phase II clinical study. A total of 133 patients have been enrolled and 100 patients have successfully completed the prescribed radiation therapy. A dose of 34 Gy was delivered in 10 fractions over 5 days prescribed to 1 cm from the applicator surface using iridium-192 high-dose rate brachytherapy. Patients who met the following criteria were selected for enrollment into the study: age 45 years or older, unicentric pure DCIS, mammographic lesion of 3 cm or less, negative margins as defined by 1 mm or more, postoperative final gross pathologic size of tumor of 5 cm or less, clinically node negative, and a postlumpectomy mammogram showing the absence of any residual suspicious microcalcifications. The placement of the MammoSite catheter was performed either at the time of the lumpectomy or postlumpectomy. The minimum distance from the balloon surface to the surface of the skin is greater than 5 mm. Data collection points are at time of enrollment, time of implant, 3 months, 6 months, and then yearly at 1- to 5-year follow-up visits. Data collected are local control rates, cosmetic outcome using the Harvard Scale, toxicities, serious adverse events, disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and contralateral breast failure. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index scores were calculated for each patient. Local recurrence is defined as either invasive or noninvasive recurrence within the target volume. Ipsilateral elsewhere recurrence is defined as either an invasive or noninvasive recurrence occurring outside of the target volume in the previously treated breast. This recurrence is classified as a new primary tumor.

RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 9.5 months (range, 1-24 mo). The MammoSite catheter was explanted for the following reasons: inadequate skin distance (5.1%; 6 of 117), poor cavity conformance (5.1%; 6 of 117), positive margins (2.6%; 3 of 117), final histology (.85%; 1 of 117), and physician decision (.85%; 1 of 117). Of the patients in whom the MammoSite was explanted because of skin spacing or cavity conformance, 50% were at sites of new users (institutions that have placed fewer than 10 Mammosite catheters). Cosmetic results were rated as excellent in 63%, good in 35%, and fair in 2% in the 86 patients with a follow-up visit. Two patients were diagnosed with an ipsilateral local recurrence, 1 outside of the target volume and 1 true recurrence/marginal miss. One patient was diagnosed at 8 months and the other was diagnosed at 11 months. Both of these ipsilateral failures were DCIS. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index of these 2 patients was 9 and 8, respectively. Data collected showed the mean age at placement was 60.8 y, mean tumor size was 10.6 mm, mean actual closest surgical margin was 6.8 mm (range, .1-40 mm), a re-excision rate of 35%, postlumpectomy placement was 71%, and the mean skin-to-balloon surface distance was 13 mm with 89% > or =7 mm. No serious adverse events were reported. The infection rate was 4.0%.

CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated partial breast irradiation delivered with the MammoSite balloon was clinically successful in patients entered into a phase II clinical study with pure DCIS, with results comparable with other studies reported in the literature that have evaluated use of the MammoSite balloon brachytherapy for delivery of radiation therapy in early breast cancers. Inadequate skin distance and poor cavity conformance were the main factors limiting the use of the MammoSite device. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 98%. There have been 2 ipsilateral breast recurrences.

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