Obstetric outcomes in overweight and obese adolescents

Sara Sukalich, Matthew J Mingione, J Christopher Glantz
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006, 195 (3): 851-5

OBJECTIVE: Obese adult pregnant women have increased rates of maternal and neonatal complications. Our objective was to examine adverse obstetric outcomes in overweight adolescent women.

STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective case-control study of 4822 women who were < 19 years old, 3324 appropriate-weight subjects (body mass index, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) and 1498 overweight subjects (body mass index, > or = 25 kg/m2) were compared. Frequencies and odds ratios for adverse maternal or neonatal events were computed.

RESULTS: Compared with appropriate-weight adolescents, primary cesarean delivery (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.4-1.9), failure to progress/cephalopelvic disproportion (odds ratio 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), labor induction (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7), pregnancy-induced hypertension (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.3), preeclampsia (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4), and gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 3.0, 95% CI, 1.6-5.4) were significantly more common in overweight adolescents. Significant neonatal findings included an increased incidence of macrosomia (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0) and a decreased incidence of low birth weight infants (odds ratio, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and small for gestational age infants (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-1.0).

CONCLUSION: Overweight adolescent women are at increased risk for adverse neonatal and perinatal outcomes. With rates of overweight increasing overall, overweight in the gravid adolescent is a pressing perinatal and public health concern.

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